Gluten Free Carbs might seem like a strange topic, but it if you follow a gluten free diet, it is a subject worth understanding.
In my practice I have noticed that when people initially adopt a gluten free diet, they have good intentions but not always good results.
There can be several reasons for this, but frequently they stop eating usual foods such as pasta, cereal and bread but don’t know what foods to eat instead. Then, they end up eating a much lower carbohydrate diet and suffer from ongoing hunger, fatigue and unintended weight loss.
To work around this, we have to know which carbohydrate foods are gluten free.
And, to really understand this, we’ll discuss gluten, complex carbohydrates, simple carbohydrates and related topics.
In every day conversation people tend to use the terms Carbs and Carbohydrates, to describe food groups, as in “I don’t really eat carbs.” The more accurate way of saying this could be “I’m limiting my intake of foods that contain complex carbohydrates” or “I’m avoiding starches and grains.”
Carbohydrates are a nutrient and may be complex carbohydrates (starches) or simple carbohydrates (sugars). Complex Carbohydrates are found in Grains, Cereals, Beans/Legumes, and Starchy Vegetables. Simple Carbohydrates are found in fruit, milk, honey, and table sugar.
Carbohydrates are also found in vegetables and nuts but in smaller quantities when consumed in customary amounts. This blog post won’t address these foods or the topic of fiber in detail. For more detailed information on these topics, please see this article on Carbohydrates.
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What Is Gluten Exactly?
Gluten is the protein found in wheat, barley, rye and some oats. Gluten is found in the wheat varieties of spelt, kamut, farrow, durum, bulgar, triticale and semolina.
A myriad of foods contains gluten such as baked goods, crackers, cereals, bread and pasta. Gluten is often a hidden ingredient in foods.
Think of gluten as a glue. Its main job is to allow food to maintain its shape by keeping it held together like glue (1).
Celiac Disease is an autoimmune digestive disorder that is triggered by the consumption of gluten-containing foods (2). This disease can cause long-term damage to the small intestine.
You may have non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), or a wheat allergy, where consuming gluten-containing foods will also trigger symptoms for your body without long-term intestinal damage.
For people with celiac disease, gluten sensitivity or wheat allergy, following a gluten-free diet is the treatment needed to sustain a healed and healthy digestive system.
Is A Gluten-Free Diet Healthy?
The World Health Organization defines a healthy diet as one that “protects against malnutrition in all of its forms,”(3).
Anyone walking the earth today is at risk of malnutrition if they aren’t eating a balanced variety of healthy foods. With individual dietary limitations, your risk for malnutrition is higher.
It is certain that if you do have Celiac disease, NCGS, or a wheat allergy following a gluten-free diet is what’s safe for you, but it may not be healthy.
You may already follow a gluten-free diet and be familiar with the many gluten-free products that are on the market today. Many of these foods are processed and lack beneficial nutrition. Gluten free breads and baked goods may be lacking in fiber and contain hidden added sugars.
A study done in 2013 assessed the diet quality of 55 adult patients with Celiac disease over 12 months and found nutrition inadequacies in fiber, folate, thiamin, calcium, zinc, and magnesium (4).
Have you ever thought about the nutritional quality of your gluten-free diet plan? Some of my clients who eat a gluten-free diet tend to avoid complex carbohydrates. Sometimes they’ve been told to avoid all carbs, starches, anything white and all processed foods.
Planning a diet strictly based on what you can’t eat may compromise the quality of your nutrition, and this may lead to further health problems. (This is why I recommend meal planning based on what you CAN eat.)
A poorly planned diet may compromise the quality of your nutrition which may lead to further health problems. The good news is that including gluten free carbs in your diet can be tasty, economical and healthy.
What Is The Difference Between Simple And Complex Carbohydrates?
Food is mainly composed of protein, fat, and carbohydrates–which provide your body with energy through metabolization.
- Carbohydrates, or carbs, can be broken down into two categories– simple and complex.
- Complex Carbohydrates include starches and fiber.
- Simple Carbohydrates are sugars.
- Are made up of short links of sugar molecules that are digested quickly in your body (5).
- Cause a quick rise in blood sugars after consumption.
- Are found in fruit, dairy, honey, syrups, sweets, juice, and soda (6).
- Are made up of long links of sugar molecules that are digested more slowly in your body.
- Generally provide a more gradual blood sugar increase, especially when consumed in their whole state and in proper quantities (5).
- Complex carbohydrates are found in grains, cereals, starchy vegetables (like potato and sweet potato) and legumes.
- Foods containing complex carbohydrates provide a substantial array of nutrition benefits.
- Food containing complex carbohydrates contain fiber, especially when consumed in minimally processed forms.
Benefits of Complex Carbs
- Starchy foods provide complex carbohydrates which are digested more slowly than simple sugars.
- Starchy foods such as grains provide vitamins and minerals including iron, B vitamins, iron, selenium, magnesium and zinc (7).
- Starchy foods provide phytonutrients (8).
- Starchy foods provide antioxidants (8).
- Starchy foods provide fiber (8).
- Starchy foods may help reduce heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, obesity and high cholesterol (8).
- Starchy foods may prevent constipation and gut health (9).
- Starchy foods help you feel full and satisfied.
- Starchy foods are generally low in fat and usually cholesterol free.
- Complex carbohydrates provide energy for metabolism, activity and exercise.
Gluten Free Carbohydrates
When you can not eat gluten gains, it is important to replace these foods with other comparable foods that are gluten free. For most meals, choosing a source of complex carbohydrates makes the most sense.
But when that is not possible, you can consume simple carbohydrates from fruit and dairy.
While fruit and vegetables are often grouped together, it is important to note that non-starchy vegetables are much lower in carbohydrates when compared to grains, starchy vegetables, dairy and fruit.
For a comparison of carbohydrate content between each food group, using a diabetic exchange list can be helpful.
Fruits contain simple carbohydrates and are gluten-free. However, if you are purchasing fruits that have been processed it is important to check the label to make sure the product is free of gluten.
The list below is not exhaustive but can give you some ideas for what kinds of fruits you may enjoy.
Gluten-Free Dairy Products
Dairy is naturally gluten-free, but with the addition of additives in food processing, there is a chance that a product could contain gluten. Always be sure to check labels.
Tip: Some people who do not tolerate gluten may also have difficulty with dairy. That’s why we often hear about “Gluten-Free, Dairy-Free” foods.
If you can eat dairy, here is a list of some common gluten-free dairy products.
- Cottage Cheese
- Ice Cream
- Sour Cream
Gluten-Free Complex Carbohydrates
Most people enjoy their meals and have good nutrition when they include a complex carbohydrate as part of the meal.
Complex Carbohydrates are found in the following food groups: Grains, Starchy Vegetables, and Legumes. I’ve also included a list of pseudograins. Sometimes these are grouped with grains as they are used similarly.
These gluten free grains can be consumed individually or are sometimes combined in to gluten free breads, flours and other products.
Be sure to choose grains that are labeled “Gluten Free” as there is a risk of cross contamination if these gluten free products are processed or farmed alongside gluten containing products.
Gluten-Free Grain List
- Corn (Sometimes corn is also considered a starchy vegetable.)
- Oats (Only when labeled Gluten Free)
- Wild Rice
Clarification: Be sure not to get confused between gluten free grans and ancient grains. Some of the ancient grains are in the wheat family, and not gluten free.
Gluten Free Pseudo-Grains
- Buckwheat (Also known as Buckwheat Groats and Kasha)
Gluten-Free, Grain-Free Complex Carbohydrates
Some diets exclude both gluten and all grains.
Starchy Vegetables and Legumes, provide complex carbohydrate and are naturally gluten free.
- Green Banana
- Cassava (Tapioca is made from Cassava.)
- Corn (Corn is sometimes considered a grain as well.)
- Sweet potatoes
- Black Beans
- Black Eyed Peas
- Broad Beans (Also known as Fava Beans)
- Cannellini Beans
- Chic Peas (Also known as Garbanzo Beans)
- Edamame (Soy Beans)
- Great Northern Beans
- Kidney Beans
- Lima Beans
- Mung Beans
- Navy Beans
- Pinto Beans
- White Beans
- French Lentils
- Green Lentils
- Red Lentils
- Yellow Lentils
- Green Peas
- Split Green Peas (dried)
- Yellow Split Peas (dried)
There are other varieties of beans, peas, lentils, pulses as well. I’ve included the ones that are most common and can be used as a source of complex carbohydrate. Foods in this list also contain protein.
How to Add Complex Carbs to your Meals
Eating enjoyable, safe, and satisfying meals is part of a healthy lifestyle.
Here are some examples below on how to easily add gluten free carbs to create a balanced gluten-free meal.
- Salad with Grilled Chicken: Add canned chic peas or cooked lentils to salad.
- Vegetable Omelet: Add Potato
- Scrambled Eggs: Serve with Grits or Corn Tortilla
- Steak and Broccoli: Add baked potato
- BBQ Meatballs and Roasted Carrots: Serve with Quinoa
- Grilled Salmon and Vegetables: Serve with Sweet Potato
Tip: It’s a good idea to identify a few “go-to” complex carbohydrate foods — foods that you know you like and that are easy to prepare. After you this, try adding a new gluten free food to your diet on a regular basis. Variety keeps your diet interesting and healthy.
Foods containing complex carbohydrates may help fight chronic diseases and are part of a healthy diet. There are plenty of gluten free carbs to choose from to make certain you’re getting enough fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Be sure to seek medical advice if you have concerns about your Celiac disease, NCSS, or wheat allergy.
Packaged gluten-free products are often both expensive and lacking in fiber and other nutrients. Foods that are naturally gluten free and easy to find at the grocery store, are usually priced more fairly, are often more nutritious, and may be more accepted by your family.
What are your favorite gluten free carbs? Let me know in the comments.
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